Medical Quiz

Vascular Quiz


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During a duplex exam post-CAS, the stent is noted to have an irregular border with an abrupt edge. Turbulence is noted with color and spectral doppler. What do these findings suggest?

A. stent deformation

B. stent fracture

C. stent restenosis

D. dissection


Where does a typical carotid endarterectomy procedure involving a longitudinal arteriotomy begin and end?

A. A normal proximal CCA to ICA

B. A normal distal ECA to the bulb and ICA

C. A normal distal portion of ICA into the CCA

D. A normal proximal ICA to the bulb


Which of the following can cause difficulties with carotid artery stents, such as restriction of balloon expansion, inadequate stent expansion, and increased risk of stent fracture?

A. Smooth, homogeneous plaque

B. Smooth, homogeneous plaque

C. Calcified plaque

D. Intraluminal thrombus


During duplex evaluation of a patient post-CEA, residual plaque is noted at the distal end of the surgical site, creating an abrupt edge of the arterial wall. What is this defect commonly called?

A. shelf lesion

B. intimal flap

C. dissection

D. myointimal hyperplasia


A surgical procedure during which the carotid artery is opened and plaque is removed in order to restore normal

A. polytetrafluoroethylene

B. arteriotomy

C. carotid endarterectomy

D. in-stent restenosis


How is flow maintained to the ECA when a stent has been deployed from the CCA through the ICA?

A. flow is occluded to the ECA

B. retrograde flow from the superficial temporal artery

C. through a bypass implanted with a stent

D. flow through the stent interstices


Abbreviated PTFE, a synthetic graft material used to create grafts and blood vessel patches; a common brand name is Gore Tex

A. in-stent stenosis

B. polytetrafluorothylene

C. arteriotomy

D. carotid artery stenting


Why does the eversion technique for carotid endarterectomy not require a patch?

A. The ICA us reverted to its original position after the procedure

B. The sutures that are widened area of the bulb

C. The sutures are at the distal taper of the ICA

D. The sutures are on the superficial wall of the artery


Which malformation may be associated with neck swelling post-CEA?

A. pseudoaneurysm

B. hematoma

C. infection

D. all of the above


What is the guidewire used for CAS usually first used to deploy and position?

A. the balloon catheter

B. the stent catheter

C. the sheath

D. the embolic protection device


When surveilling an ICA stent, when do the majority of >50% stenosis occur?

A. within 1 month

B. within 12 months

C. within 18 months

D. within 6 months


During duplex assessment of a carotid artery stent, velocities at the distal end of the stent reach 350 cm/s. Turbulence is noted distal to this area. What do these findings suggest?

A. > 30% in-stent stenosis

B. >80% in-stent stenosis

C. >50% in-stent stenosis

D. normal finding in the stent


For maximal efficacy, how far should a stent extend proximal and distal to the lesion?

A. a few centimeters

B. less than 1 mm

C. a few millimeters

D. more than 10 mm


Stent distortion has been reported with mechanical forces on the neck from all the following EXCEPT:

A. head tilting

B. coughing

C. neck rotations

D. swallowing


A catheter-based procedure in which a metal mesh tube is deployed into an artery to keep it open, following balloon angioplasty to dilate a stenosis

A. carotid artery stenting

B. carotid endarterectomy

C. arteriotomy

D. in-stent restenosis


What is a perivascular fluid collection above an irregular buckling of a patch an indication of?

A. pseudoanuerysm

B. hematoma

C. patch rupture

D. active infection


A surgical incision through the wall of an artery into the lumen

A. carotid endarterectomy

B. in stent-restenosis

C. carotid artery stenting

D. arteriotomy


When might the velocity criteria established for native (non operated) carotid arteries NOT be valid in a post-CEA ICA?

A. CEA with primary closure

B. CEA with patch closure

C. eversion CEA

D. native criteria are not used after any CEA procedure


Which artery is most often used for catheter insertion for CAS?

A. the popliteal artery

B. the common femoral artery

C. the brachial artery

D. the common carotid artery


Which statement is true of postprocedural evaluation of velocities in CAS?

A. it is always a sign of restenosis

B. it is not necessarily a sign of restenosis

C. it is not as frequent as in CEA

D. it is the result of great compliance of the stent


A narrowing of the lumen of a stent, which causes a stenosis

A. carotid endarterectomy

B. polytetraflourothylene

C. in stent- restenosis

D. carotid artery stenting


Because of limitations in evaluating the vessels following an endarterectomy, what becomes more important to evaluate?

A. Quality of flow in the distal ICA

B. Quality of flow in the vertebral arteries

C. Quality of flow in the proximal ICA

D. Quality of flow in the contralateral ICA


What is stenosis at the CEA site usually considered to result from more than 24 months after an endarterectomy?

A. thrombosis

B. neointimal hyperplasia

C. atherosclerotic process

D. intimal flap


When evaluating an endarterectomy site within 48 hours of the surgical procedure, one should be mindful of preventing infection by using all the following EXCEPT:

A. using steriel gel

B. using sterile pads

C. leaving the sterile dressing in place

D. using sterile transducer cover


Which of the following is NOT a common problem leading to stenosis at the level of the arteriotomy performed during endarterectomy?

A. hyperplastic response

B. narrowing due to sutures

C. retained plaque

D. use of a patch




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