The extended, severe exposure of the walls of the blood vessels to the exaggerated pressure that occur in malignant hypertension cause injuries to the walls of the arterioles. Blood vessels in the renal system are particularly vulnerable to this type of damage. Because hypertension is a chronic disease and is associated with autoregulatory changes in the blood flow to major organs, what could be the initial treatment goal for malignant hypertension?
A. partial reduction in blood pressure to less critical values
B. reduction to normotensive levels of blood pressure
C. rapid decrease in blood pressure to less critical values
D. slow, gradual decrease in blood pressure to normotensive blood pressures
an elevation in blood pressure increases the workload of the ______ by increasing the pressure against which the heart must pump as it ejects blood into the systemic circulation
A. right atrium
B. left atrium
C. right ventricle
D. left ventricle
which statement is correct regarding the systemic circulation?
A. moves blood through the lungs
B. it is a low pressure system
C. it has a mean arterial pressure of 12 mmHg
D. it is a high pressure system
the ______ represents the average pressure in the arterial system during ventricular contraction and relaxation
A. mean arterial pressure
B. venous volume
cardiac output (CO) is used to measure the efficiency of the heart as a pump. what is the equation used to express CO?
A. CO = HR x AV
B. CO = SV x HR
C. CO = AV x SV
D. CO = HR x EF
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a central role in blood pressure by increasing _________ and ________
A. vessel dilation; fluid excretion
B. cardiac output; peripheral vascular resistance
C. vessel constriction; fluid retention
D. arterial pressure; venous stasis
the ______ risk factors include a family history of hypertension, race, and age-related increases in blood pressure
A client with malignant hypertension is at risk for a hypertensive crisis, including the cerebral vascular system often causing cerebral edema. As the nurse carding for this patient, what are the signs and symptoms you would assess for?
A. papilledema and lethargy
B. headache and confusion
C. restlessness and nervousness
D. stupor and hyperreflexia
“greater the stretch = greater the force of contraction” describes which mechanism?
which statement is correct regarding the pulmonary circulation?
A. moves blood throughout all the other tissues of the body
B. moves blood through the lungs and creates a link with the gas exchange function of the respiratory system
C. it has a mean arterial pressure of 90-100 mmHg
D. it works against the effects of gravity
select the response that best describes the pressure-sensitive receptors that respond to changes in the stretch of the vessel wall
B. neural pathways
C. cardiovascular centers
The nurse observes a client care technician obtain a blood pressure on an obese client using a BP cuff that is too small. The nurse is aware that this will result in:
A. a decreased pulse pressure reading
B. a reading that is too low
C. a reading that is too high
D. an accurate BP assessment
which statement correctly defines secondary hypertension
A. accounts for 95% of cases
B. no cause can be identified
C. often results from other disorders such as kidney disease
D. chronic elevation of blood pressure which occurs without evidence of other disease conditions
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