A defective protein can be produced by a cell when a mutation has which of the following effects?
A. Messenger RNA is prevented from being made.
B. It causes cells to divide in an uneven way.
C. An additional mRNA strand is caused to form.
D. The amino acid sequence coded by the gene is altered.
DNA replication occurs just before
The purpose of translation is to –
A. create new organelles and recycle old ones.
B. prevent mutations that may harm an organism.
C. produce messenger RNA as a first step in protein synthesis.
D. create proteins by bonding together amino acids.
Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which red blood cells become irregularly shaped. The disease is caused by the presence of an incorrect amino acid in a certain protein. The disease most likely occurred due to an altered sequence of nitrogenous bases in the –
A. original DNA in the nucleus.
B. transcribed mRNA strand.
C. tRNA on the ribosome.
D. complementary DNA strands.
Which of the following is the most complete and accurate description of mutation?
A. Three adjacent nitrogen bases of mRNA that code for an amino acid
B. The process of matching anticodon sequences in tRNA to mRNA codons
C. A spontaneous change in DNA that may lead to cellular malfunction
D. A biomolecule composed of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
The environment has the greatest effect on the expression of genes when which of the following occurs?
Which of the following stages is the first step during the process of transcription?
A. A polypeptide strand is made.
B. Codons are read to produce an amino acid.
C. DNA is turned into an mRNA copy.
D. A section of DNA helix is unwound by an enzyme.
A codon chart is provided.
Students are modeling how genes produce proteins by using wooden tiles with letters to represent the genes. In this model, the words that the combination of letters produce represents the proteins. In this model, which of the following best represents a mutation?
A. Combining many different words to create a complete message
B. Creating any word that is spelled exactly the same way forwards and backwards
C. Changing one or more of the letters so that they spell a different word, or no word at all
D. Making different words, with a certain number of letters, that have the same meaning
A codon chart is provided.
What amino acid sequence was created by the following strand of mRNA: AUGAGU
A. Methionine – Serine
B. Methionine – Arginine
C. Aspartate – Glycine
D. Aspartate – Glycine
The process of synthesizing RNA from DNA is known as –
An animal leaves its footprint in wet mud, and later, when the mud dries, the footprint can be filled with plaster. When the plaster hardens it has the same shape as the foot of the animal. The plaster cast could then be used to make new footprints in soft mud identical to those made by the animal. The process of using the plaster cast to make new footprints most accurately models –
A. translation of mRNA codons to form a protein.
B. transcription of mRNA from the original DNA code.
C. insertion of nucleotides into the mRNA codons.
D. deletion of nucleotides from the tRNA anticodons.
Which of the following is the best explanation of the process of translation?
A. An mRNA strand is copied from the original DNA sequence.
B. Amino acids are placed in order to build a protein.
C. A piece of DNA is moved along the chromosome.
D. DNA is changed due to a mistake or environmental factor.
DNA is _____________ stranded.
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