Medical Quiz

Circulation and Excretion Quiz


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Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?

A. changing force of the contraction of the heart

B. constricting and relaxing sphincters in the walls of arterioles

C. adjusting the volume of the blood in the veins

D. all the above

E. only a and b


If you cut yourself and apply pressure to the cut for several minutes and it is still bleeding, what could be wrong?

A. mast cells are not releasing the chemical messengers

B. platelets are not working properly

C. hemoglobin levels are too high


To maintain homeostasis, fresh water fish

A. excrete large amounts of water

B. take in large quantities of water

C. take in large quantities of electrolytes


Process that returns materials to the blood from the filtrate

A. reabsorption

B. secretion

C. filtration


What organism has blood that flows directly form the respiratory organs to the body tissues without returning to the heart first?

A. amphibians

B. fish

C. humans


When the circulating blood fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells, what type of circulatory system is this?

A. closed

B. open

C. gastrovascular


What causes the Bohr shift?

A. changes in pH

B. changes in partial pressure of oxygen

C. hemoglobin concentration


The principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesised

A. In kidneys but eliminated mostly through liver

B. In liver and also eliminated by the same through bile

C. In kidneys as well as eliminated by kidneys

D. In the liver but eliminated mostly through kidneys


Urea is a product of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids. Where is it produced in the body?

A. liver

B. kidney

C. lung


Water across the gills of fish and the blood in the gills does in opposite direction enhancing the diffusion of oxygen from the water into the blood. What is this flow in the opposite direction called?

A. undirectional flow

B. countercurrent exchange

C. atriventricular exchange


What type of excretory organs do insects and flatworms have?

A. protonephridia, metanephridia

B. Malpighian tubules, protonephridia

C. metanephridia, Malpighian tubules


For oxygen to become bound to hemoglobin for transport in the blood, which of the following would be true?

A. 2 membranes must be crossed, in and out of the cell lining the lung and then bind directly to the hemoglobin

B. 4 membranes, in and our of the cell lining the lungs, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the alveolar capillary, and then bind directly to hemogloblin

C. 5 membranes – in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the alveolar capillary and into the RBC to bind to hemoglobin


Where does filtration occur in the nephron?

A. glomerulus

B. loof of Henle

C. proximal convoluted tubules


The muscular tubes which take the urine from the kidneys to the bladder are

A. Urethras

B. Urinary bladders

C. Nephrons

D. Ureters


In which of the following would you expect to have the greatest blood pressure on the aorta?

A. systole of the left ventricle

B. diastole of the left ventricle

C. systole of the right atrium

D. systole of the right ventricle


A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and then back to the left ventricle, how many capillary beds must this RBC flow through?

A. 4

B. 3

C. 2


The hollow space at the centre of kidney where urine is collected after its formation is called

A. Urethra

B. Distal convoluted tubule

C. Glomerulus

D. Renal pelvis


Which is a normal event in blood clotting?

A. production of erythropoietin

B. activiation of prothrombin to thrombin

C. conversion of fibrin into fibrinogen


The Bowman’s capsules are found in

A. Cortex

B. Medulla

C. Convoluted tubule

D. Loop of Henlé


Ammonia is the most toxic nitrogenous waste. Organisms that produce this must have access to lots of

A. oxygen

B. proteins

C. dry air

D. water


Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans

A. converted to bicarbonate ions by and enzyme on the RBC

B. bound to hemoglobin

C. simply dissolved in the plasma


Which process is least selective?

A. filtration

B. secretion

C. reabsorption


The basic functional unit of human kidney is

A. Henlé’s loop

B. Nephron

C. Nephridia

D. Pyramid


Why do premature infants suffer respiratory failture?

A. sudden changes in the oxygen from the uterine environment

B. mutations in genes regulating the formation of the lungs

C. lungs collapse due to lack of surfactants


What happens when carbon dioxide levels increase in the blood?

A. pH increases forcing the organisms to decrease respiration rate

B. pH decreases forcing the organism to increase respiration rate

C. the stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to slow breathing




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