Anitigens on pathogens which have got into the human body can lead to the development of specific immunity.
That is an immunity which responds only to this antigen.
Which of the following cells causes the specific immunity?
What is thought of as the primary defenses against pathogens in the human body?
A. Lymphocytes and phagocytes
B. Antibodies and lymphocytes
C. The skin and mucous membranes
D. The circulatory system
Pathogens are recognized by their…
C. killer t-cells
Liz notices that shortly after cutting her arm accidentally the area around the cut is turning red and feeling hot. Which immune system defense is Liz experiencing?
B. white blood cell clotting
What is the effect which thrombin has on the process of blood clotting?
A. Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin
B. Prothrombin is converted to thrombin
C. Platelets are caused to release clotting factors.
D. Clotting factors are taken up by red blood cells.
What is a role of activated B cells?
A. Secrete antibiotics in response to specific antigens
B. Activate T cells in the immune response
C. Release histamine in response to allergens
D. Multiply to form clones of plasma cells
In the production of monoclonal antibodies, B-cells are fused to tumour cells to make hybridoma cells. What can hybridoma cells do?
A. Divide endlessly
B. Ingest antigens
C. Become memory cells
D. Bind to antibodies
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A. Active immunity is the stimulation of the immune system to produce antigen-specific antibodies.
B. Vaccines produce immunological memory similar to that acquired by having the natural disease.
C. The most common way to acquire passive immunity is to have the natural disease.
D. Killed forms of a microorganism can act as an antigen.
When activated by the presence of a pathogen some lymphocytes produce antibodies and other lymphocytes act as memory cells.
Which of the following best describes the role of memory cells in the immune system?
A. They store antigens from the pathogen for lymphocytes to use as a template for antibodies in the future.
B. They remember the antigen on the pathogen and tell the lymphocytes how to respond if it is re-encountered.
C. They quickly clone to form a group of phagocytes if the pathogen is re-encountered.
D. They quickly clone to form a group of plasma cells if the pathogen is re-encountered.
The table shows the results of blood type tests on samples from four individuals. Which row represents an individual who can accept transfusions from people with blood type AB?
What do antibodies attach to on the pathogen?
A. Anti inflammatory
If the skin is broken then a blood clot forms to seal this cut.
What is the first step in the process of blood clotting?
A. Fibrinogen turns into fibrin
B. Platelets release clotting factors
C. Fibrinogen is converted into thrombin
D. Thrombin is converted into prothrombin
What is directly responsible for allergic symptoms, including a runny nose or itchy eyes?
T cells that kill infected cells are
A. cytotoxic T’s
B. helper T’s
C. plasma cells
D. antigen presenting c
T cells mature in the
A. bone marrow
T cells are made in the___________
A. bone marrow
Which type of blood cells are capable of ingesting pathogens?
C. Lymphocyte cells
D. Phagocyte cells
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