Medical Quiz

Neurological Concepts Quiz


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what movements are involved in the primary motor cortex

A. involuntary movements

B. voluntary or conscious movements

C. sensory movements


define the term flaccidity

A. loss of muscle tone

B. series of rhythmic jerks in a muscle that occur below the lesion level

C. fine twitches that can be seen on electrocardiogram


what is an agonist

A. a muscle that includes a contractions to move a part of the body directly

B. and muscle that includes a counteractive action of another specified muscle


what do synergy patterns entail

A. stereotyped sets of movements that occur in response to a stimulus / voluntary movement that involved pathology of muscle tone that affects joint positions after neurological damage

B. The breakdown of the primary motor cortex

C. Include our gait pattern and how we balance using our cerebellum


define the term clonus

A. loss of muscle tone

B. series of rhythmic jerks in a muscle that occur below the lesion level

C. fine twitches that can be seen on electrocardiogram


what is the process of the corticospinal tract

A. to carry unconscious /voluntary motor information from the pre-central gyrus up to, but not including the ventral horn . The track then synapses onto motor spinal nerves that innovate skeletal muscles

B. to descend from corticospinal track and project onto certain cranial nerve nuclei that have motor components. This track controls cranial nerves and lower motor neurons

C. proprioceptors that are located in the skeletal muscles that provide a constant flow of information on the muscles


define cogwheel rigidity

A. form of hypertonicity that involves difficulty moving the muscle groups on both sides of the joint and is related with Parkinson’s

B. increased muscle tone results in continuous resistance to passive movements to a limbs entire range of motion

C. increased muscle tone results in jerky, alternating resistance to passive movements as muscle contracts or relaxes

D. severe spasticity at joint


define rigidity

A. form of hypertonicity that involves difficulty moving the muscle groups on both sides of the joint and is related with Parkinson’s

B. abnormal decrease in muscle tone caused by damage to motor neurons in ventral horn and spinal nerves in the periphery nerves

C. increased muscle tone results in jerky, alternating resistance to passive movements as muscle contracts or relaxes

D. severe spasticity at joint


what is the process of the corticobulbar tract

A. to carry unconscious /voluntary motor information from the pre-central gyrus up to, but not including the ventral horn . The track then synapses onto motor spinal nerves that innovate skeletal muscles

B. to descend from corticospinal track and project onto certain cranial nerve nuclei that have motor components. This track controls cranial nerves and lower motor neurons

C. proprioceptors that are located in the skeletal muscles that provide a constant flow of information on the muscles


Where is the primary somatosensory area located

A. precentral gyrus

B. occpital lobe

C. postcentral gyrus

D. frontal lobe


what type of movements do the pyramidal system contain

A. involuntary

B. motor

C. sensory

D. voluntary


what is the job of the lower motor neurons

A. to carry motor information from the cortex to CN’s in the brain stem or interneurones that synapses in the ventral horn

B. to carry motor information from the motor cell bodies in ventral horn to skeletal muscles

C. preservation of sensory and motor functions


define extensor synergy

A. more commonly seen after a stroke; external example of forearm positioning

B. more common in lower extremities; seen with cerebral palsy diagnoses


what is the job of the upper motor neurons

A. to carry motor information from the cortex to CN’s in the brain stem or interneurones that synapses in the ventral horn

B. to carry motor information from the motor cell bodies in ventral horn to skeletal muscles

C. preservation of sensory and motor functions


describe the term golgi tendon organ (GTO)

A. proprioceptors that are located in the skeletal muscles that provide a constant flow of information regarding length, tension and load on the muscles

B. proprioceptors that are embedded in skeletal muscles insertion and detect tension in the tendon of a contracting muscle

C. interconnected neurons that attach to fibers of the muscles and pull against them


Who is Brodmann

A. well-known researcher in spinal cord disease cures

B. first neuroanatomist to attempt brain mapping

C. first person to dissect the brain

D. developed the first neurology textbook


define spasticity

A. increase muscle tone with inability to voluntarily control the muscles actively or passively on one side of the joint

B. abnormal decrease in muscle tone caused by damage to motor neurons in ventral horn and spinal nerves in the periphery nerves

C. form of hypertonicity that involves difficulty moving the muscle groups on both side of the joint

D. severe spasticity at joint


what is the difference between the lateral and anterior corticospinal tract

A. the anterior tract crosses in the pyramidal decussation of the medulla while the lateral tract does not cross, making it ispalateral

B. the lateral tract crosses in the pyramidal decussation of the medulla while the anterior tract does not cross, making it ispalateral

C. the location of the tracts is the difference, they both do the same things


define lead pipe rigidity

A. form of hypertonicity that involves difficulty moving the muscle groups on both sides of the joint and is related with Parkinson’s

B. increased muscle tone results in continuous resistance to passive movements to a limbs entire range of motion

C. increased muscle tone results in jerky, alternating resistance to passive movements as muscle contracts or relaxes

D. severe spasticity at joint


describe the term muscle spindles

A. proprioceptors that are located in the skeletal muscles that provide a constant flow of information regarding length, tension and load on the muscles

B. proprioceptors that are embedded in skeletal muscles insertion and detect tension in the tendon of a contracting muscle

C. interconnected neurons that attach to fibers of the muscles and pull against them


Where is the primary motor cortex located

A. precentral gyrus

B. occpital lobe

C. postcentral gyrus

D. frontal lobe


what is an antagonist

A. a muscle that includes a contractions to move a part of the body directly

B. and muscle that includes a counteractive action of another specified muscle


which spinal cord tract originates in the primary motor cortex area

A. corticospinal

B. corticobulbar

C. spinocerebellar

D. cuneocerebellar


define hypotonicity

A. increase muscle tone with inability to voluntarily control the muscles actively or passively on one side of the joint

B. abnormal decrease in muscle tone caused by damage to motor neurons in ventral horn and spinal nerves in the periphery nerves

C. form of hypertonicity that involves difficulty moving the muscle groups on both side of the joint

D. severe spasticity at joint


what does the pre-motor area do for the body

A. plays a role in motor planning

B. controls our sensitivity to noise

C. adapts our body to loud conversations

D. responsible for our involuntary reflexes




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