Keratinase has the greatest effect on the ______.
A. genital system
C. respiratory system
D. gastrointestinal system
Which of the following does not illustrate the use of universal precaution methods in the handling of patients and body substances?
A. Sterilizing or disinfection of dental hand pieces
B. Mask and gloves
C. Healthcare worker with active, open lesions handling patients
D. Hand washing
Microbial antagonism is the
A. inhibition of T cell binding to microbes.
B. competition for nutrients, oxygen, and space between the resident microbiota and potential pathogens.
C. prevention of immune responses by the resident microbiota
D. suppression of the complement cascade by microbes.
If an individual has a genetic disorder whereby they lack the ability to make complement protein C3, the likely consequence is
A. a higher incidence of bacterial and viral infections.
B. enhanced inflammation.
C. an inability to synthesize antibodies.
D. excessive fever development.
Lysozyme is found in ______.
B. Salivary Secretions
D. All of the choices
Tissue transplanted from one body site on a patient to a different body site on that patient is called a(n) _____
T/F: Latency is a dormant state of an infectious agent.
The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the ______.
A. urinary tract
C. respiratory system
D. digestive tract
Which of the following is not a factor that weakens host defenses against infections?
A. Strong, healthy body
C. Physical and mental stress
D. Old Age
A. block synthesis of leukotrienes.
B. reverse spasms of respiratory smooth muscles.
C. bind to histamine receptors on target organs.
D. inhibit the activity of lymphocytes.
Edward Jenner’s work involved
A. immunization using a related, less pathogenic organism to give protection against a more pathogenic one.
B. development of an immunization to protect people against cowpox.
C. inoculation of dried pus from smallpox pustules into a person to stimulate immunity.
D. development of passive immunotherapy.
All of the following pertain to platelets, except
A. they function primarily in hemostasis.
B. they contain hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
C. they originate from giant multinucleate cells called megakaryocytes.
D. they are not whole cells but are pieces of cells.
Infection with enteroviruses, such as rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, has been implicated in the onset of type I diabetes. This area of research involves the study of ______.
A. forbidden clones
B. sequestered antigens
C. molecular mimicry
D. the gut microbiome
You have received the first hepatitis A vaccine. It was required for your mission trip to Nicaragua in Central America, where hepatitis A is common. However, you never went back for the booster shot of the vaccine, which should have been received within 6 months of the initial vaccination. What statement accurately reflects your present immunity to this pathogen?
A. This is not a problem because the second dosage is just extra protection. Your immune status would be very high.
B. You are at risk to get hepatitis A since your immune status is only partial. Not enough immune memory cells were produced since you received one dosage of vaccine, so you are likely to get the disease when exposed to the virus.
C. The one dosage is not enough because it only activated humoral immunity. The second dosage is used to activate cell-mediated immunity. The combination of the two immune responses gives you 100% coverage of immunity to hepatitis A.
D. Not a problem because at any time, in a year, 5 years, etc., you can go get the booster vaccine for hepatitis A and be fully covered by immunity.
An example of natural passive immunity would be
A. chickenpox infection, followed by lifelong immunity.
B. giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease.
C. chickenpox vaccine triggering extended immunity to chickenpox.
D. a fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta.
The stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity is the
A. incubation period
B. prodromal stage
C. convalescent stage
D. period of invasion
T/F: A low to moderate fever in an otherwise healthy person should be treated immediately with antipyretic drugs.
Humoral immunity involves ______, while _____ function in cell-mediated immunity.
A. B cells, T cells
B. T Cells, B cells
C. basophils; T cells
D. B cells; neutrophils
An endotoxin is ______.
A. secreted by pathogenic organisms
B. indicative of fungal infections
C. indicative of gram-negative bacterial infection
D. indicative of viral infections
The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is ______.
C. lactic acid
D. hydrochloric acid
If you were a bacterial cell, which of the following would be the most beneficial for you to have or be able to make for the survival of your species?
The study of the frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population is ______.
D. Clinical Microbiology
Which of the following is mismatched in relation to inflammation?
A person with O type blood
A. could not have the Rh factor.
B. lacks all of the alleles for ABO blood type.
C. is called a universal recipient.
D. lacks A and B antigens
A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a(n) ______.
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