As an adult who never developed chickenpox infection as a child, you elect to receive the protective vaccine against this pathogen at the age of 35. This vaccine will stimulate
A. a primary immune response.
B. a secondary immune response.
C. an anamnestic response.
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are called _____ because they have prominent cytoplasmic inclusions that appear with identifying, characteristic colors in a stained blood smear.
T/F: Systemic anaphylaxis can quickly result in airway blockage, shock, and death.
Reservoirs include ______
E. All of the answer choices shown
Diseases can re-emerge for a variety of reasons. Evaluate the following statements and choose the one that does not provide evidence for a re-emergence.
A. Humans have avoided animal habitats.
B. Pathogens evolve over time.
C. Climate change influences arthropods to expand their geographical areas.
D. Agents of bioterrorism have been introduced into a population.
T/F; The allergen in poison ivy plants is an oil called urushiol.
The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly diversified from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the ______ region.
Each of the following are benefits of fever except
A. it increases phagocytosis.
B. it increases the availability of iron.
C. it stimulates hematopoiesis.
D. it increases metabolism.
The stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity is the
A. incubation period
B. prodromal stage
C. convalescent stage
D. period of invasion
Not all phagocytic cells are antigen-presenting cells. B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells differ from neutrophils in that they synthesize ______ .
B. CD8 receptors
C. MHC-II receptors
D. MHC-I receptors
How are an epidemic and pandemic alike?
A. Both involve a viral infection
B. Both involve a bacterial infection.
C. Both involve an outbreak of a disease.
D. Both involve small numbers of infected individuals
The study of the frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population is ______.
D. Clinical Microbiology
Microbial antagonism is the
A. inhibition of T cell binding to microbes.
B. competition for nutrients, oxygen, and space between the resident microbiota and potential pathogens.
C. prevention of immune responses by the resident microbiota
D. suppression of the complement cascade by microbes.
Which event occurs with the sensitizing dose of allergen?
A. Histamine acting on smooth muscle
C. Binding of IgE by the Fc region to mast cells and basophils
D. Binding of allergen to adjacent IgE binding sites on mast cells and basophils
Which of the following is an example of sequelae?
A. Difficulty swallowing from streptococcal infection
B. Headache from meningitis
C. Arthritis from Lyme disease
D. Diarrhea from Salmonella enteritidis infection
An infection spread between animals and humans is a ______.
C. Secondary Infection
D. Healthcare-associated infection
Scientists are trying to prevent an epidemic of a highly contagious disease. What information should the scientists study first?
A. how the disease reproduces
B. the treatment of the disease
C. the symptoms of the disease
D. how the disease is transmitted
The circulating substances that affect the hypothalamus and initiate fever are ______
Infections that go unnoticed because there are no symptoms are called ______.
C. secondary infection
T/F: Interferons do not protect the cell that secretes them.
The suffix –emia means ______.
B. a disease or morbid process
D. pertaining to
T/F: The virulence factors of a pathogen are determined by how strong or weak a patient’s body defenses are at the time of infection.
Once a mother has been sensitized to the Rh factor,
A. all other Rh+ fetuses are at risk.
B. she can be given RhoGAM in future pregnancies to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn.
C. she can never again have a low risk pregnancy.
D. only future Rh- fetuses are at risk.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mandates that some diseases must be reported, while it is not necessary for others. This is so that
A. statistics may be gathered for certain diseases.
B. high-risk epidemics can be identified and dealt with as quickly as possible.
C. disease trends and areas of outbreak can be monitored for certain diseases.
D. All of the above answers validate why it is important to report certain diseases to the CDC.
T/F: During inflammation, a high neutrophil count is a common sign of bacterial infection.
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