What can be a consequence of a genetic deficiency in B-cell survival and maturity?
A. Graft versus host disease
B. Formation of autoantibodies
C. Host rejection of graft
Which of the following statements does not represent the role of a cell marker in the third line of defense?
A. They are attachment sites for foreign molecules.
B. They serve as recognition factors for self and nonself molecules.
C. They receive and transmit signals to coordinate the immune response.
D. They serve as transcription factors to initiate antibody production.
Carriers that shed and transmit pathogens a long time after they have recovered from an infectious disease are called ______ carriers.
The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A. maternal Rh- cells enter an Rh+ fetus.
B. maternal Rh+ cells enter an Rh- fetus.
C. fetal Rh+ cells enter an Rh+ mother.
D. fetal Rh+ cells enter an Rh- mother.
The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly diversified from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the ______ region.
Transfusion of the wrong blood type can cause
A. recipient antibody activation of the complement cascade to attack the RBCs.
B. fever and anemia.
C. systemic shock and kidney failure.
D. All of the choices are correct.
A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a(n) ______.
Diapedesis is the
A. production of only red blood cells.
B. migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues.
C. plugging of broken vessels to stop bleeding.
D. loss of blood due to hemorrhaging.
Not all phagocytic cells are antigen-presenting cells. B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells differ from neutrophils in that they synthesize ______ .
B. MHC-II receptors
C. CD4 receptors
D. MHC-I receptors
Antigens that elicit allergic reactions are called ______
C. heterophilic antigens
The granules of eosinophils contain ______.
The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is _____.
The major histocompatibility complex is
A. a set of glycoproteins, called MHC antigens, found on all body cells.
B. a set of genes that code for MHC glycoproteins.
C. Found on the 3rd chromosome
D. All of the answers shown
When would Koch’s postulates be utilized?
A. to determine the cause of a new disease in a microbiology research lab
B. to formulate a vaccine against a new pathogen in a genetic engineering lab
C. to develop a new antibiotic in a pharmaceutical lab
D. whenever the scientific method cannot be used to investigate a microbiological problem
The ability of TC cells to initiate apoptosis in virally-infected cells and cancer cells is dependent on their ability to produce __________ and __________; proteins that punch holes in the target cell membrane.
A. perforin; granzyme
B. antibodies; interferons
C. interleukin-1; interleukin-2
D. interferon; interleukins
Which of the following is the endotoxin?
Animals that participate in the life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are ______.
A. mechanical vectors
B. biological vectors
D. droplet nuclei
A. are derived from T lymphocytes.
B. function in cell-mediated immunity.
C. function in blood clotting.
D. produce and secrete antibodies.
The lymphoid tissues of the intestinal tract are collectively referred to as ______.
A. The Thymus
B. The Spleen
D. Lymph Nodes
All of the following represent potential therapy for patients with SCID except
A. graft versus host.
B. transfusion with adensosine deaminase.
C. bone marrow transplants.
D. stem cell grafts.
An example of artificial active immunity would be
A. giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease.
B. chickenpox infection, followed by lifelong immunity.
C. a fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta.
D. chickenpox vaccine triggering extended immunity to chickenpox.
If an individual has a genetic disorder whereby they lack the ability to make complement protein C3, the likely consequence is
A. a higher incidence of bacterial and viral infections.
B. enhanced inflammation.
C. an inability to synthesize antibodies.
D. excessive fever development.
Lysozyme is found in ______.
B. Salivary Secretions
D. All of the choices
Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called ______.
A. indigenous biota
C. normal biota
D. true pathogens
E. opportunistic pathogens
Bacterial toxins are chemical products made by bacteria. A person ingests some honey containing Clostridium botulinum. The C. botulinum is actively growing and releases toxin in the honey. The person becomes ill from ingesting the toxin. This is an example of a/an ______.
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